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Old 02-27-2012, 05:10 PM   #1021
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I need to be out of school already so I have more time to devote to interesting topics of science that interest me. Not that school is boring but theres so much more Id like to research and brush up on without always having an academic deadline.
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Old 02-27-2012, 05:10 PM   #1022
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You really think you'll have more time once you start working?
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Old 02-27-2012, 05:11 PM   #1023
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I did some research on planetary nebulae when I was in undergrad. The prevailing theory (from what I remember) is that the star undergoes a supernova and creates the nebula. Then, the remnant of the star (a neutron star probably) ejects jets of particles from the poles of the star as matter accretes onto it. The jets then push on the nebula and creates the lobe structures you see. The rotation of the remnant can cause the jets to sweep out a larger solid angle creating larger lobes.

EDIT: the central star causing this can also be a white dwarf or a binary star, where the compact companion (whate dwarf or neutron star) accretes matter from the larger star
That makes more sense than my guess!
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Old 02-27-2012, 05:12 PM   #1024
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You really think you'll have more time once you start working?
No but I wont have to constantly research, read, and write about one field. Ill be able to explore other areas over time gradually.
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Old 02-27-2012, 05:29 PM   #1025
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Ok, so it explodes and creates the nebula, got that. Then the neutron star shoots jets of particles out, I'm good there. And then the jets define where the gases can go? Like a line rotating off-axis to form a cone?
Exactly, the jets sweep out a cone-like region that pushes out the gases.

Also, now that I think about it, the original nebula isn't from a supernova in the case of Planetary Nebulae, but is caused by pulsations of a red giant. The pulsing pushes off layers of the star that create's the nebula.

(I'm editting my original post now...)
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Old 02-27-2012, 05:54 PM   #1026
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I would think the resulting shape would be more conical than it is. It almost looks more like a parabola rotated about an axis, save the disk in the middle.

edit: Bonus: Animation of a recent supernova
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Old 02-27-2012, 06:24 PM   #1027
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I don't know about the physics of the nebulae on the small scale, but there are a whole bunch of these types of bipolar nebluae: https://www.google.com/search?hl=en&...=1847&bih=1053
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Old 02-27-2012, 11:04 PM   #1028
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Old 02-29-2012, 12:44 PM   #1029
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A lot of people have known for awhile that psilocybin can help treat PTSD and depresssion but this study has shown exactly why that is.
http://medicalxpress.com/news/2012-0...es-neural.html
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Recently, however, scientists in the Neuropsychopharmacology Unit at Imperial College London used complementary blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI, or fMRI, in conjunction with a technique for imaging the transition from normal waking consciousness to the psychedelic state. The study found decreased blood flow and BOLD in the thalamus, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and medial prefrontal cortex. The researchers concluded that the surprising results strongly suggest that the subjective effects of psychedelic drugs are caused by decreased activity and connectivity in the brain's key connector hubs, enabling a state of unconstrained cognition.

Lead researcher Dr. Robin L. Carhart-Harris, working in the Neuropsychopharmacology Unit created by Prof. David J. Nutt, recounts the team's main challenges in establishing an fMRI methodology that would be specific enough to highly correlate neurophysiological activity with the neuronal presence or absence of psilocybin. "There were a number of considerations," Carhart-Harris tells Medical Xpress. "In terms of experimental design, we had to determine the precise dose and delivery protocol that would be appropriate for obtaining clear fMRI results. "For example," he explains, "we had to consider temporal dynamics: If the drug was administered orally, the protracted period of time between ingestion, metabolism, and crossing of the blood-brain barrier would fall outside of the short scanning window needed to capture induced brain activity." They therefore had to rely on intravenous administration.

"Another issue," Carhart-Harris adds, "was methodological - specifically, isolating any placebo effect derived from changes not due to the injection itself, such as anticipatory anxiety." The team also had to measure physiological parameters, including breathing and heart rate, in order to use these signals as weighting factors, correlate with baseline levels and remove them as a possible explanation of any observed brain changes.

To address these challenges, Carhart-Harris points to the pilot work the team performed in order to determine the optimal dose. "The original dose was too low in our mock scanner environment, in which subjects were asked to rate regular subjective or perceptual experiences< he recalls. "However, that simply wouldn't work in a scanning environment, since their very response would interfere with fMRI measurement."

Regarding next steps in their research, Carhart-Harris sees obtaining a grant to study psilocybin as a treatment for depression - scheduled to begin at the end of 2012 - as key. "Psilocybin decreases brain activity in regions such as the medial prefrontal cortex," he explains, "that are overactive in depression." The team may also perform the same investigations with alternative psychedelic compounds, such as MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) - a synthetic, psychoactive drug, commonly known as Ecstasy, that is chemically similar to the stimulant methamphetamine.

Carhart-Harris is also interested in the effects of psilocybin on memory. "When subjects are in the scanner," he illustrates, "and are shown personal memory cues, then asked to close their eyes and remember the emotions at the time of the original event, the recalled emotions are more vivid - indicating elevated brain activation - when under the effects of psilocybin." Moreover, Carhart-Harris notes that when administered psilocybin when undergoing psychotherapy, there is an increased incidence of sudden personal insights. He speculates that this suggests that psilocybin-induced visual changes indicate that the visual pathways are more sensitive to signals from the hippocampus, which is involved in memory, when under psilocybin.

In addition to depression, Carhart-Harris observes, there are other research and applications that might benefit from the team's findings. "Those suffering from cluster headaches," he notes, "report excruciating pain that is difficult to treat, sometimes describing it as worse than the pain childbirth. During such headaches, they show an increase in hypothalamic activity to date has only been ameliorated by deep brain stimulation. However," he concludes, "when administered psilocybin, they display a decrease in hypothalamic activity and a corresponding suspension of cluster headaches."
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Old 02-29-2012, 03:29 PM   #1030
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Water ice on mars, lots of it. I have a feeling we'll be discovering fossils within our lifetime
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Old 02-29-2012, 04:04 PM   #1031
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Water ice on mars, lots of it. I have a feeling we'll be discovering fossils within our lifetime
[img]http://i.imgur.com/0LJnF.jpgg]
http://www.esa.int/esaMI/Mars_Expres...KA808BE_0.html

Note the date.
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Old 03-02-2012, 11:34 AM   #1032
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Very cool video on auroras from the space station. Just look at the stars as they film the auroras... Amazing.

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Old 03-02-2012, 11:40 AM   #1033
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hmm, so why no new news since then? thats 7 years?
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Old 03-02-2012, 11:50 AM   #1034
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I just came across it on Reddit and didn't look into it any farther.

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Very cool video on auroras from the space station. Just look at the stars as they film the auroras... Amazing.

Check out the left hand side of the picture, about 1/3 of the way down to the left of the arm @2:03-2:07, something is moving across the sky.



Pretty cool CNT transistor that looks like a sheet of plastic.

http://www.physorg.com/news/2012-03-...ece-paper.html



I thought this was interesting as well. A team studied the feasibility of the Alcubierre drive to look for any unintended effects and found that in areas in front of and behind the warp bubble, particles build up at very high energies. When the ship decelerates (for lack of a better term), the particles get shot out in the form of gama rays that would obliterate anything in their path. They only studied the plane parallel to the direction of travel, so it could work out that the rays get shot off in every direction.
http://www.physorg.com/news/2012-03-...-downside.html
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Old 03-02-2012, 01:28 PM   #1035
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There is a portable, water-based fuel cell (for iPhones and what nots).
So why is a fuel cell car taking so long?
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Old 03-02-2012, 01:33 PM   #1036
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Whaaat? How the fvck does that work? Pour water in and it makes electricity?
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Old 03-05-2012, 08:47 AM   #1037
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Came across a pretty decent blog that covers all sorts of physics related stuff in lay terms
http://skepticsplay.blogspot.com/search/label/physics
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Old 03-05-2012, 11:30 AM   #1038
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A new approach to disentangling the complexities of biological networks, such as the way in which proteins interact in our body's cells has been developed by researchers in China. The team's algorithm could allow biologists and biomedical researchers to unravel new clues about how cells work and what goes awry with such networks in various diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and cancer.
http://www.physorg.com/news/2012-03-...-networks.html
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Old 03-05-2012, 03:04 PM   #1039
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Old 03-05-2012, 03:30 PM   #1040
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Well, this is terrifying
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